How Galileo Changed Your Life

A History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume 4. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved. Cloth —, p. Cloth since , p. Silk, p.

History of printmaking

No one knows exactly how or when coffee was discovered, though there are many legends about its origin. Coffee grown worldwide can trace its heritage back centuries to the ancient coffee forests on the Ethiopian plateau. There, legend says the goat herder Kaldi first discovered the potential of these beloved beans.

A Dutch father-son team named Hans and Zacharias Janssen invented the dating back to the 17th century—with his undergraduate students.

Indeed, this 17th-century Benedictine monk spent years trying to find ways of keeping bubbles out of wine, which were regarded as a sign of poor wine-making. But this created a problem. Lying to the east of Paris, Champagne has a relatively cold climate, and thus a short growing season for vines. The grapes were picked and turned into juice late in the year, so the fermentation process did not have time to finish before the winter set in.

Only with the return of spring, and warmer temperatures, could the process begin again – by which time the juice had been bottled. James Dyson’s History of Great Inventions. His aristocratic clients did not seem to mind: indeed, the new Champagne wine proved a hit with both the French and English courts. He then focused on preventing the wine triggering explosions in cellars.

He found the solution by switching to stronger English bottles, stopped with best Spanish cork. In , Jacques Pitoux, a Champagne-loving advertising salesman, invented a safety cork to make opening a bottle less fraught. Mention the phrase “universal joint” to most people, and they’ll probably think of the ball-and-socket arrangements that allow movement about all three axes.

But for engineers, it is the term used for a much more clever invention: a joint that allows not just movement in any direction, but also the transmission of mechanical power.

Inventions you didn’t know were Dutch

The Netherlands and its people have made numerous contributions to the world’s civilization in art, science, technology and engineering, economics and finance, cartography and geography, exploration and navigation, law and jurisprudence, thought and philosophy, medicine. Until the fall of Antwerp , the Dutch and Flemish were generally seen as one people. The De Stijl school proposed simplicity and abstraction, both in architecture and painting, by using only straight horizontal and vertical lines and rectangular forms.

Furthermore, their formal vocabulary was limited to the primary colours, red, yellow, and blue and the three primary values, black, white and grey.

Drebbel, a Dutch 17th century physicist, invented the first submarine – a big wooden structure, covered in greased leather, which used tubes to.

The monumental complex at Caserta, created by the Bourbon king Charles III in the midth century to rival Versailles and the Royal Palace in Madrid, is exceptional for the way in which it brings together a magnificent palace with its park and gardens, as well as natural woodland, hunting lodges and a silk factory. It is an eloquent expression of the Enlightenment in material form, integrated into, rather than imposed on, its natural setting.

The Convent of St Gall, a perfect example of a great Carolingian monastery, was, from the 8th century to its secularization in , one of the most important in Europe. Its library is one of the richest and oldest in the world and contains precious manuscripts such as the earliest-known architectural plan drawn on parchment. From to , the conventual area was rebuilt in Baroque style.

The cathedral and the library are the main features of this remarkable architectural complex, reflecting 12 centuries of continuous activity. The ruins of the ancient city of Aksum are found close to Ethiopia’s northern border. They mark the location of the heart of ancient Ethiopia, when the Kingdom of Aksum was the most powerful state between the Eastern Roman Empire and Persia.

The massive ruins, dating from between the 1st and the 13th century A. Long after its political decline in the 10th century, Ethiopian emperors continued to be crowned in Aksum. To the east of the Alhambra fortress and residence are the magnificent gardens of the Generalife, the former rural residence of the emirs who ruled this part of Spain in the 13th and 14th centuries. Located at the crossroads of several trade routes from the 2nd millennium B.

The 13th-century citadel, 12th-century Great Mosque and various 17th-century madrasas, palaces, caravanserais and hammams all form part of the city’s cohesive, unique urban fabric, now threatened by overpopulation. Bosra, once the capital of the Roman province of Arabia, was an important stopover on the ancient caravan route to Mecca.

Alcohol in the 17th Century: Age of Discovery

Engraving is one of the oldest art forms. Engraved designs have been found on prehistoric bones, stones, and cave walls. The technique of duplicating images goes back several thousand years to the Sumerians c. They conceived not only the idea of multiplication but also the mechanical principle, the roller, which in more sophisticated form became the printing press. On the basis of stone designs and seals found in China, there is speculation that the Chinese may have produced a primitive form of print—the rubbing —about the 2nd century ce.

The first authenticated prints rubbed from woodblocks were Buddhist charms printed in Japan and distributed between and ce.

influence of the telescope on scientific ideas in the seventeenth century. Much of what I have to It is a pity that Cornelis de Waard’s book on the invention of the telescope (De. Uitvinding der a telescope in the hands of a Dutch peddler at the Frankfurt fair in by Riccioli himself that are reported here date from (​pp.

Even with stiff competition at the international level, Canadians still claim that ice hockey is a product of their country. What if researchers have been able to provide evidence to the contrary? However, with a number of people wondering where hockey began, evidence points to the United Kingdom as the home to the earliest roots of hockey.

Windsor, Nova Scotia, even managed to get the Ministry of Transport to put up a highway sign saying it was the birthplace of hockey. Kingston claimed to be the birthplace of hockey. Halifax, Deline — in the Northwest Territories — all these places claimed hockey. Everybody in Canada has a claim to hockey, and you can find one, or two, or perhaps three references supporting each claim. But then you look at England, and all of a sudden there are hundreds and hundreds of references to hockey being played all over the country — some dating back as far as the s.

It took place at Victoria Skating Rink on March 3, , with two teams of nine players each. James Creighton organized the game and even captained one of the teams. While it is documented as the first indoor organized game of hockey in Canada, all signs point to Europe as the birth place of the beloved game — controversial or not. Along with Martel, who is a full-time computer analyst, Swedes Carl Giden a physician and Patrick Houda a journalist joined Martel in uncovering the truth about who invented hockey.

As mentioned, their research reveals the possibility that the first game could date back as far as the s in Britain.

Cats came to Australia with European settlers not 17th-Century shipwrecks, two studies say

Early writings in classical Greek and Roman times refer to edible white roots, but these may have also been parsnips, or both. There are white rooted carrots in existence today, often used as animal feed or a novelty crop, but nevertheless gaining popularity for public consumption. While the carrot is known as a bright orange root crop, the original carrots domesticated in Central Asia ca. Wild carrot is indigenous to Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia, with its center of diversity in present day Afghanistan Vavilov and Dorofeev Based on most historical records, the first evidence of carrot being cultivated as a food crop was in the Iranian Plateau and Persia in the 10th century BanlLa a,b, ; Brothwell and Brothwell , and molecular evidence supports a Central Asian origin of domesticated carrot Iorizzo et al.

During Arab expansion post the tenth century CE, the roots were brought east to Andalusia in what is now Spain and from Spain spread to the rest of Europe.

DATING Since only three Vermeer’s paintings were dated by his own at the Open Window and Dutch Genre Painting from the 17th Century.

A publication of the Archaeological Institute of America. Found in the waters off a small Dutch island, a seventeenth-century shipwreck provides an unparalleled view of the golden age of European trade. Sometimes, shipwrecks appear out of what seems to be merely sand. For more than years, a ship lay unseen just off the Dutch island of Texel in the southeastern part of the North Sea, known as the Wadden Sea.

This unique tidal and wetland environment, created by the interaction of salt water and fresh water with the mainland and islands, is one of the most dynamic ecosystems in the world, hosting an extraordinarily diverse biomass. It is home to more than 2, species of plants and animals, and is a crucial stopover on the major migratory flyways—between 10 and 12 million birds pass through each year.

Hidden for centuries at a depth of nearly 30 feet, the so-called Burgzand Noord 17 wreck unexpectedly materialized on the seabed several years ago. A bit of the vessel and some artifacts were first spotted by members of a local amateur diving club in , but it was not until that more of the ship and its cargo began to emerge. Because of the shifting nature of the seafloor and the need to protect the wreck and its contents from further illegal exploration, the artifacts from the site—which would eventually number more than 1,—were quickly removed.

The wreck sits in an environment that inhibits the oxygen, bacteria, and fungi that typically break down organic material. There, protected from light and currents, protein-based items of animal and insect origin, such as leather and silk, survived for centuries, while those of plant origin, such as book pages, and shirts, collars, and cuffs made of cotton or linen, are missing from the bundles brought up from the wreck, explains van Bommel.

8 quirky Dutch inventions

If operated properly, it could approach an enemy ship undetected and use a screw to plant a mine filled with pounds of gunpowder. The first submarine actually constructed was probably a vessel created and tested in the early seventeenth century by Dutch inventor Cornelis Drebbel. Over the next two centuries, various inventors continued to work out design problems.

This one-man wooden craft relied on a human-powered hand crank and foot treadle for propulsion. dutch inventions dating 17th century If operated properly.

Here are some interesting facts and figures about how water has shaped the Dutch landscape, culture and lifestyle. Home Expat info The Netherlands. Expat Info. The flag of the Netherlands is red, white and blue; just turn the French one 90 degrees to the left. Orange is the Netherlands’ national colour because of the house of Orange, the Dutch royal line.

The Netherlands is one of the best countries for children to live in Unicef report.

A timeline of inventions

Brad Amos has spent most of his life thinking about and looking into tiny worlds. Now 71 years old, he works as a visiting professor at University of Strathclyde in Scotland where he leads a team of researchers designing an extremely large new microscope lens—about the length and width of a human arm. Today, microscopists like Amos are working around the world to innovate new technologies with widespread applications in medicine and human health.

But these cutting-edge advancements all trace back to the very first microscopes built in the 16th and 17th centuries.

The earliest surviving cart sheds date from the 17th century but the majority are late 18th or 19th century in date. • The largest cart sheds are.

When the Chazen Museum of Art opened in the fall of as the Elvehjem Art Center, the collection of 1, paintings and works on paper had been acquired by the UW—Madison since Today, there are over 20, works of art in the museum’s collections. These holdings represent the entire spectrum of art history across culture, period, media, and genre.

Read more about the areas of our collections using the headings above. Browse or search our collections using the links in the left-hand navigation. The paintings from this period are from Italy and The Netherlands. Anno Receiving the Donation of Sieberg from the altarpiece of St. Anno and St. Agilolfus is an excellent example of Antwerp mannerism. A small panel attributed to Jan Gossaert demonstrates the impact of Italian humanism on Flanders.

Netherlandish paintings from this period are well represented. There are excellent examples of Italian and Spanish baroque painting. Peter by Bernardo Strozzi was acquired in

22 Things the Rest of the World Needs to Thank the Dutch For

From the 15th through 17th centuries, Europe sought to expand its power and riches through a rigorous exploration of the world. The Age of Discovery, also known as the Age of Exploration and the Great Navigations, was a period in European history from the early 15th century to the early 17th century. During this period, Europeans engaged in intensive exploration and early colonization of many parts of the world, establishing direct contact with Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Oceania.

the end of the 17th century, London experienced a financial together with the invention of the bill of exchange and double-entry accounting, gave the Italian Expressions like going Dutch, a Dutch treat, Dutch date, Dutch ride, Dutch party.

Despite high social position and an excellent education, he shocked his upper-class associates by his conversion to the beliefs of the Society of Friends, or Quakers, then a persecuted sect. He used his inherited wealth and rank to benefit and protect his fellow believers. Despite the unpopularity of his religion, he was socially acceptable in the king’s court because he was trusted by the Duke of York, later King James II. The origins of the Society of Friends lie in the intense religious ferment of seventeenth century England.

George Fox, the son of a Leicestershire weaver, is credited with founding it in , though there was no definite organization before The Society’s rejections of rituals and oaths, its opposition to war, and its simplicity of speech and dress soon attracted attention, usually hostile. With the Duke’s support, Penn’s petition was granted. The King signed the Charter of Pennsylvania on March 4, , and it was officially proclaimed on April 2.

The King named the new colony in honor of William Penn’s father. It was to include the land between the 39th and 42nd degrees of north latitude and from the Delaware River westward for five degrees of longitude.

The History of Coffee

A suggestive tour of the Netherlands that will lead us through breathtaking landscapes, discovering the wonderful places of the land of tulips and windmills. We will go through the Ardennes to get to Flanders where we can admire the majesty of the North Sea. At this point we will be transferring to Amsterdam, the capital of northern Europe, where we will finally visit the famous windmills and the infinite expanse of tulips.

Thanks to the invention of Sony’s Walkman, a decade later, By the 17th century​, the Netherlands (particularly Amsterdam) was already a Their navigation-​based innovations, dating from the 16th century on, include.

But his controversial theories, which impacted how we see and understand the solar system and our place within it, led to serious conflict with the Catholic Church and the long-time suppression of his achievements. After learning about the Dutch invention, he was able to develop one of his own, teaching himself how to ground lenses.

His first version magnified distant objects by three times. By that fall, he could produce lenses with a 20x magnification. His innovations brought him both professional and financial success. He was given a lifetime tenure position at the University of Padua, where he had been teaching for several years, at double his salary.

5 Ancient Inventions Science Can’t Explain